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Positioning.

static

This is the default. Meaning normal flow of html layout.
#static { position: static; }
Lorem
static element
Ipsum

relative

Relative to normal (=static) position;
#relative { position: relative; top: -10px; left: 50px; }
Lorem
relative element
Ipsum

fixed

Fixed in the browser window (not page).
#fixed { position: fixed; bottom: 10px; right: 10px; width: 150px; height: 20px; }
The fixed element will not leave an empty space.
fixed element
Look to the bottom right of the window.

absolute

Absolute position within parent element.
Only if parent is positioned. Positioned means anything but static.
If parent is not positioned, the absolute position refers to body.
#absolute { position: absolute; top: 0px; right: 0px; width: 150px; height: 20px; }
The fixed element will not leave an empty space.
absolute element
Look to the bottom right of the window.